Precedent Study of Fortification: plans and section of Pleshey Castle, a midieval motte and bailey castle in Essex, England that uses manipulated topography as its primary defense.
  plan and section of Fort Niagara built in the 1600's in Youngstown, NY  on the eastern bank of the Niagara River   at its mouth, on Lake Ontario.
 Photographic documentation of a section cut through Fort Niagara's site created cinematic event in the form of a flip book, examining the changing conditions of the relationship between body, horizon and ground plane and an exploration of how these three elements become reference points for one's orientation in space.
  Design of Fort Niagara's Visitor's Center, pland and section. The projection of planes created by critical points of change in the topography creates a volume that challenges existing relationships of body, horizon, and ground plane.  
  Visitor's Center, plan and section.  Hand drafted graphite on stonehenge paper.
  Visitor's Center, section detail.  Hand drafted graphite on stonehenge paper.
   The sequential path through the programmatic elements of a Visitor's Center at the present day fort focus on ascent, descent, conditions of above and below ground, and access to views outside.  The volume's path is an extension of the already hyper-defined land with which it integrates below, through, above, around, and over the topography.  As one travels through the Visitor's Center, one is exposed to the fort's history as well as its heightened spatial experiences.
  Visitor's Center, embedded in site context topgography of existing fortification. hand drafted graphite on stonehenge paper.
  scale physical model of Visitor's Center. chipboard, basswood, mylar.
Model final roof plan copy.jpg
  site model built in collaboration with studio: basswood, plywood. All student project proposals are included on site.
  Detail of scale model on site, amongst other student proposals. basswood.
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